2017-09-23 15:04:21 UTC
January 24 – Gunpowder Plot: The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators, for plotting against Parliament and James I of England, begins.
January 31 – Guy Fawkes is executed.
February 9 – Pedro Fernandes de Queirós discovers Mehetia.
February 12 – Pedro Fernandes de Queirós discovers Tauere atoll.
February 26 – Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon makes the first confirmed sighting of Australia by a European.
March – The Duke of York's ship Duyfken, under Captain Willem Janszoon, explores the western coast of Cape York Peninsula.
March 19 – Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, in the Fortezza Vecchia Chapel of Saint Francesco, elevates Livorno to the rank of city.
April 10 – Charter of 1606: The First Charter of Virginia is adopted, by which King James I of England grants rights to the Virginia Company (comprising the London Company and Plymouth Company) to settle parts of the east coast of North America.
April 12 – The first version of the Union Flag is created, to be worn as a national flag by English and Scottish ships.
May – Pedro Fernandes de Queirós discovers the islands of Vanuatu; believing them to be Australia, he names them La Austrialia del Espiritu Santo.
May 17 – Supporters of Vasili Shuisky invade the Kremlin, and kill Tsar Dimitri II of Russia.
August (approx.) – Possible first performance of William Shakespeare's tragedy Macbeth in London.
August 16 – Battle of Cape Rachado: A Dutch fleet is defeated by the Portuguese.
October – Luís Vaz de Torres is the first European to sail through the Torres Strait.
September 20 - The trial in the gravedigging scandal of Frankenstein begins.
November 11 – The Peace of Zsitvatorok is signed, between the Ottoman and Holy Roman Empires. The independence of Transylvania is recognized by both sides, and Austria's annual tribute to the Ottomans is abolished.
A storm buries the village of St Ismail near modern-day Kidwelly, Carmarthenshire, Wales.
The Jesuit Joannis Stribingius visits Latvia, and describes Latvian mythology.
The Evangelic Lyceum (Evanjelické lýceum), a Lutheran high school is founded in Bratislava.
The cryptographic text Steganographia, written by Johannes Trithemius c.1499, is published in Frankfurt.
Gregor Richter succeeds Martin Möller as the chief pastor of Görlitz.