2017-10-05 14:26:13 UTC
January – Sebald de Weert makes the first definite sighting of the Falkland Islands.
February 17 – Giordano Bruno is burned at the stake for heresy in Rome.
February 19 – Huaynaputina volcano in Peru undergoes a catastrophic eruption, the worst to be recorded in South America.
March 20 – Linköping Bloodbath: Five Swedish nobles are publicly executed by decapitation, and Polish–Swedish King Sigismund III Vasa is de facto deposed, as ruler of Sweden.
April 19 - The first Dutch ship ever to arrive in Japan, called "Liefde" ("Love"), anchors in Sashifu, in the Bungo area (nowadays Usuki in Oita Prefecture).
July 2 – Eighty Years' War – Battle of Nieuwpoort: (Dutch War of Independence) The Dutch gain a tactical victory over the Spanish.
August 5 – The brothers Alexander Ruthven and John Ruthven, 3rd Earl of Gowrie, are killed during a failed attempt to kidnap or murder King James VI of Scotland at their home.
October 6 – Première of Jacopo Peri's Euridice, the earliest known fully surviving work of modern opera, produced by Emilio de' Cavalieri for the wedding of Henry IV of France and Maria de' Medici in Florence.
October 21 – Battle of Sekigahara in Japan: Tokugawa Ieyasu gains nominal control over the whole country.
December 31 – The East India Company is granted a Royal Charter in the Kingdom of England, on trades in Asia.
Sumo wrestling becomes a professional sport in Japan.
William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream is first performed, and his play The Merchant of Venice is published.
William Gilbert publishes De Magnete, which describes the Earth's magnetic field, and is the beginning of modern geomagnetism.
Fabritio Caroso's Nobiltà de dame is published.
Ulster chieftains, with the lead of Hugh O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone, resist the English reconquest of Ireland.
A Persian embassy arrives in Prague, and meets with Rudolf II.
Martin Möller is appointed chief pastor of Görlitz.
The Lutheran orthodox campaign intensifies, to reinforce the Book of Concord (approximate date).
Thessaly Rebellion (1600).