2017-08-10 22:13:51 UTC
January 31 – The Edict of Orleans suspends the persecution of the Huguenots in France.
March 1 – Kingston Grammar School is founded in England.
April 14 – The citizens of Nuremberg see what appears to be an aerial battle, followed by the appearance of a large black triangular object and a large crash (with smoke) outside the city. A news notice (an early form of newspaper) is printed on April 14, describing the event.
May 8 – Madrid is declared the capital of Spain, by Philip II.
June 4 – Old St Paul's Cathedral in the City of London is badly damaged by fire, and the spire is destroyed after being struck by lightning. The spire is not rebuilt.
June 6 – Sweden conquers Livonia (modern Estonia).
June 25 – Francis Coxe, an English astrologer, is pilloried at Cheapside in London, and makes a public confession of his involvement in "sinistral and divelysh artes".
June 29 – Erik XIV is crowned King of Sweden.
July – Arauco War: The hated encomendero Pedro de Avendaño and two other Spaniards are killed, triggering the Second Great Rebellion of the Mapuche.
July 12 – Saint Basil's Cathedral in Moscow (started in 1534) is finished.
August – English merchant Anthony Jenkinson arrives in Moscow on his second expedition to the Grand Duchy of Moscow.
August 19 – Mary, Queen of Scots, is denied passage through England after returning from France. She arrives at Leith, Scotland on August 19.
September – Protestant reformer John Knox has a three-day debate in Maybole, Ayrshire, Scotland with Quintin Kennedy, commendator of Crossraguel Abbey, on transubstantiation. The result is inconclusive, but Kennedy is fighting a losing battle against the Reformation, which had been confirmed by the Scottish government in 1560.
October 18 – Fourth Battle of Kawanakajima: Takeda Shingen defeats Uesugi Kenshin, in the climax of their ongoing conflicts.